The Photography of John Henry Haynes

Map of the Ottoman Empire

Before its partition after World War I, the Ottoman Empire sprawled from the Balkans to Mesopotamia. While experiencing some modernization and westernization in the nineteenth century, much of its inland territory remained difficult of access to foreigners before the advent of modern transportation networks. Ottoman lands contained vestiges of innumerable ancient civilizations, and these had attracted hardy European explorers from the early eighteenth century onward. By the mid-nineteenth century, merchants and missionaries had formed a frail network of Western presence in the hinterlands. Arriving first in 1881, Haynes followed in the footsteps of many earlier explorers, but with one significant distinction: he traveled with a camera .